# Combining git repositories

A quick run down of combining git repositories which do not share history. Posted by Thomas Sutton on December 29, 2015

Suppose you have two git repositories which don’t share any history and you’d like to import the files in one into the other. For the sake of example, I’ll call the source repository (the one which contains the commits I want to import) nirvana and the target repository (the one I want to put the commits into) midgard. I’ll also assume that I’m interested in the master branch of both repositories.

Warning Some of the commands I’m going to use have the potential to damage the history of your git repository. If you aren’t sure what any of the commands below do you should make a backup of your repository before proceeding.

The process goes like this:

1. Clone a new copy of midgard.
2. Add a remote for nirvana.
3. Create a rewrite branch based on nirvana/master.
4. Rewrite the rewrite branch commit messages and file structure.
5. Rebase the rewrite branch on midgard/master.
6. Push the rewrite branch upstream (to PR, review, or whatever).

## Preparing a working repository

I hate having to restore repositories from backup (especially when I don’t have backups and have to rely on my local clones) so I always make a throw-away clone when I’m rewriting history, etc.

git clone git@example.com:midgard.git import-nirvana
cd import-nirvana
git remote add nirvana git@example.com:nirvana.git
git fetch nirvana

These commands give me a new clone of the midgard repository, and add a remote and fetch the nirvana repository.

## Preparing for import

Once I have the commits it’s time to massage them gently into shape ready for import. In my case, I want to add Nirvana: to the front of every commit message (so that I can tell which sub-project a commit changes when I review the git log) and move everything in the nirvana repository into a nirvana sub-directory (to avoid clobbering build scripts, etc. which exist in both).

These changes involve rewriting history so I’ll do them on a new rewrite branch. If [when] I screw it up the first few times I’ll be able to discard the branch and try again without cloning and fetching both repositories from scratch.

git checkout -b rewrite nirvana/master

Rewriting the commit messages is conceptually easy but kind of annoying when using git-filter-branch. The --msg-filter argument takes a command which accepts the current commit message on its standard input and must produce the new message on its standard output. Using echo and cat to add “Nirvana:” to the start of the first line looks like this:

git filter-branch --msg-filter '/bin/echo -n "Nirvana: " && cat'

Moving the files into a subdirectory called nirvana is essentially the same but the command (passed to --tree-filter this time) is quite a bit more complex. Instead of echoing some text and then cating the current message we’ll mkdir a new directory and then mv the files into it.

git filter-branch --tree-filter 'mkdir -p nirvana &&
find . -mindepth 1 -maxdepth 1 ! -name nirvana -exec mv {} nirvana
\;' HEAD

I’ve used mkdir -p nirvana to create the directory if it does not already exist. One thing you need to be careful of when mving your files into the new nirvana directory is that you don’t attempt to move the nirvana directory into itself. If you are using bash or some other “advanced” shell you can enable and use negative globbing but I prefer to use find to select only the files I want to move.

Here find . -mindepth 1 -maxdepth 1 ! -name nirvana looks at the current directory and finds every file (or directory) which is:

• At least 1 level deep (i.e. not just ./); and
• At most 1 level deep; and
• Not named nirvana.

Then each match is substituted for the {} in the mv {} nirvana ; and the command is executed. This moves everything except nirvana/ into nirvana/.

## Merging branches

All that remains is to graft the newly prepared rewrite branch onto the existing midgard/master history so that they can be merged together. Because the tree of every commit in rewrite has been rewritten to have all files under the nirvana/ directory it should be trivial to rebase the rewrite branch on the midgard/master branch.

git rebase origin/master

This should go through without any intervention. If it does not, you probably already have a directory called nirvana/ with some of the same files as the rewrite branch. You’ll need to resolve any conflicts that git reports in the same way you usually do but be sure to use the git rebase commands to continue!

With that done the branch is ready to merge but I usually take this opportunity to git rebase -i and squash some commits, update build scripts to build the imported code, etc. Once this is done I generally push the branch into the origin repository (midgard)

git push -u review origin/import-nirvana

And then open a pull request for my team mates to review.

This post was published on December 29, 2015 and last modified on July 4, 2020. It is tagged with: howto, git, rewrite, history.